Chapter 7 Notes: Communication

30 03 2009

After planning, the third step in the public relations process is communication.  This can also be called execution.  The objectives at this stage are exposure, accurate dissemination of the message, attitude change, and change in overt behavior.

For any message that is sent, for it to be considered communication, it must be received.  sender-receiver.  Due to the fact that everyone is unique, this means that everyone receives messages differently.  So, each message is designed specifically for the target audience and how they receive and react to certain messages.  It is is important to understand the state of mind of the people you are trying to reach.  For the passive audiences, style and creativity must be utilized to send a message.  For the more active audiences seeking a certain product or message, the message content must have more depth and clarity.  Public relations professionals must be aware of common language of their target audiences.  This makes the communication easier.  “Key variables in believability include source credibility, context, and the audiences predispositions, especially their level of involvement.  Repeating the message is a good way to keep it at the forefront of a market and minds of those involved.  For a target audience to accept a message, there are five steps to be completed:  awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption.





Chapter 6 Notes and Summary: Program Planning

30 03 2009

Following the research step of the of the public relations process is program planning.  This is designed to complete organizational objectives.  The objectives of a program can either be informational or motivational.  Informational creates an awareness of a product or service and motivational tries to generate more customer participation and sales.

There are two approaches to program planning.  They are management by objective (MBO)  and strategic planning models.

“MBO provides focus and direction for formulating strategy to achieve specific organizational objectives.”

Most public relations firms have their own planning model consisting of market research, demographic segmentation of target audiences, and establishment of key messages.

“A program plan is either a brief outline or an extensive document identifying what is to be done and how.”  There are eight basic parts of a program plan:  situation/opportunity, objectives, audience, strategy, tactics, calendar or timeline, budget, and evaluation.





Chapter 5 Notes and Summary: Research

30 03 2009

The basic groundwork of any public relations organization is research. Research involves gathering information to be utilized and the interpretation of that information.

Secondary research frequently involves archival research, which is the inventory of organizational materials at the start of the campaign. This can show sales history, profile of customers, etc…People also seek out information from libraries and online databases like search engines. The search engines allows everyone with computer access to search for information, statistics, and such on the internet.

Qualitative research is designed for probing attitudes and perceptions, assessing how far the message travels, and the testing of messages. ” The primary techniques for qualitative research are content analysis, interviews, focus groups, copy testing, and ethnographic observation and testing.”

Quantitative research is information that is used to represent the general population. This information can be attained by conducting random sampling studies which allows everyone in the target audience to be in the sample. “Sample size determines the margin of error in the statistical findings.”





Chapter 4 Summary: Dept’s and Firms

30 03 2009

Most organizations have public relations departments.  Such departments can also be called corporate communications.  Organizations, depending on their culture and the wishes of top management, structure the public relations function in various ways.  Public relations professionals often serve at the tactical and technical level, but others are counselors to the top executive and have a role in policy making.  In management theory, public relations is a staff function rather than a line function.

Public relations firms come in all sizes and are found world wide, providing a variety of services.  In recent decades, many public relations firms have either merged with advertising agencies or become subsidiaries of diversified holding companies.  Advantages of using outside firms include versatility and extensive resources, among other considerations; but they can also lack the full time commitment if an in house department, need a lot of direction, and are often more expensive.  Revenues primarily come from charging a basic hourly fee, plus out of pocket expenses.





Chapter 3 Notes: Ethics

30 03 2009

Ethics can be referred to as a person’s value system and how that person differentiates between what they believe to be right and wrong. There are 3 basic value orientations. They are absolutists, existentialist, and situationalists.  Even people that represent a company can behave in an ethical manner because the public understands that the advocate is working due to an assigned role.  For example…attorneys and lawyers.  Certian groups like the PRSA, IABC, IPRA are responsible for the setting the standards and ethical behaviors for the profession.  “It is the responsibility of the public relations professionalsto disclose the funding and identity of individuals who claim to be ‘citizen groups’ but actually represent the disguised interests of their actual sponsors. ”  In order to achieve true public relations the professional must hold a higher standard and to the public interest.  They are more than “careerists”.  They do not simply repeat what the organization they wants them to say.





Chapter 2 Notes

27 03 2009

Public Relations may be  an relatively new job field, but the roots of public relations date back thousands of years.  In order to attract people to come to the New World, private companies promoted a beautiful new country that people would desire to be a part of.   In the 1800’s press agents began to emerge.  P.T. Barnum was the pioneer of public relations and introduced techniques that are still used today.  Once people became settled in America settling the West was next on the list.  Promotions by land developers and railroads played a huge role in the eventual settlement of the west.  When corporations, in the 1900’s, began to be criticized about certain polices and actions that the public deemed wrong these corporations used public relations to respond to public allegations of wrong  doing.  Public Relations was altered from 1900 to 1950 by people like henry Ford, Ivy Lee, George Creel, Edward B. Bernays, and Arthur page.  There became a shift from press agentry to a journalistic  concept in distributing accurate information to the public at large.  1950 to the present showed the establishment of public relations.





About Me

27 03 2009

Well let me start off by saying that this is my first time writing on a blog or even paying attention to one.  I’m a very ‘outdoorsy’ person.  I don’t spend spend all my time on social networks and websites.  If I’m outside doing something I am a much happier person.  I hunt religiously for whatever is in season at the time.  Hunting is my hobby and my passion.  I also love sports, March Madness, shootin hoops, or attempting to play golf…yes I’m terrible.  Time management is something about me that could use improvement.  Like any other student i hate homework, but I am a hard worker.  I don’t really know what I want to do with public relations, but surely I will figure something out.  I aim to graduate next May because right now the five year plan seems more feasible than our nation’s current economic crisis.  I love to laugh and see people do the same.